Intelligence represents a person’s ability to generate information and gain knowledge. Intelligence is also the capacity of an individual to solve problems, think critically, understand things, reason, be creative, etc.
Besides humans, animals and plants also have intelligence. Humans have also created artificial intelligence, which is the intelligence of machines and computer programs.
Intelligence combines different cognitive skills and the individual’s knowledge. It is mostly measured with intelligence tests. Intelligence tests are usually created by psychologists and they represent a combination of different cognitive tasks, which are mostly perceptual, verbal, conceptual, and quantitative.
The results of these tests usually yield an IQ score (or intelligence quotient) of the person.
These tests are usually used to determine the mental age of children by comparing their mental age to the average IQ of children of that age.
Psychologists also use intelligence tests during their recruiting process to determine whether their candidates are suitable to perform a certain task or job.
The IQ score is usually used to demonstrate the level of the person’s intelligence. Intelligence tests have scales which can precisely determine the level of intelligence of a person. It should be noted that scores on these tests don’t always reveal the actual state of the person’s intelligence.
The reason for that is the state of the emotional and psychophysical person during the test.
Namely, the person who is under stress, or emotionally upset for some reason, or fears the outcome and results of the test, won’t perform well on the test, and the scores will be significantly lower than they actually are. That is why these tests have a tolerance score of up to 20 points.
IQ scores typically range between 40 and 160. The average intelligence is considered between the score of 90 to 109. Scores below 90 are considered below average intelligence, and scores above 109 are considered above average intelligence.
It is important to remember that intelligence isn’t an unchangeable category and it changes with age, and especially increases with education. The level of intelligence can be raised up to 20 points.
Types of intelligence
There are many types of intelligence. There is a common general intelligence factor, which all scientists agree exists.
It represents the ability of the person to gain knowledge, think abstract, adapt to different situations and circumstances, reason, and learn from experience. It is known that people with higher general intelligence learn faster than those with lower general intelligence.
Apart from general intelligence, there are also specific intelligences. They represent the special abilities and skills of a person in various areas.
Besides these intelligences, there is also emotional intelligence, which represents the capacity of a person to understand people’s intentions, emotions, desires, and motivations.
There are also psychologists who differentiate fluid and crystalized intelligence. Fluid intelligence represents the person’s ability to learn some new ways to solve problems and handle their issues, as well as to gain knowledge.
Crystalized intelligence is the intelligence gained through experience during the person’s life. While fluid intelligence tends to decrease as we age, crystalized intelligence tends to increase with the person’s age.
According to some scientists, besides general intelligence, there are also creative and practical intelligence. Creative intelligence represents the person’s creative abilities as well as their ability to visualize the results of their creative endeavors before they become reality.
Practical intelligence represents the person’s ability to resolve problems. That is intelligence gained through experience and is similar to general intelligence.
Intelligence quotient (IQ)
Intelligence quotient represents a measure of an individual’s level of intelligence. Intelligence tests are created with the idea to mostly measure the person’s general intelligence.
They are created for different age groups because intelligence changes with aging.
The tests go through a process of standardization, which is a process where tests are given to different age groups and average score for different ages is determined. This process should be regularly done because of a noted tendency that intelligence increases on generational level.
The IQ or intelligence quotient is calculated by comparing the person’s chronological age and their mental age. It is calculated using the formula: IQ = mental age ÷ chronological age x 100.
For example, if a child who is 10 years old solves an intelligence test for an 10 year old with results as the average 10 year old, this child has the IQ of 100 (10÷10×100=100). If a child at the age of 7 years does a test of a 10 year old as good as an average 10 year old child, the child has an IQ of 143 (10÷7×100=143).
According to research, genetics has a significant role in the forming of the level of IQ. The role of genetics is larger than the role of the person’s environment and upbringing. Parents and their children usually have a similar level of IQ.
Even though genetics is very important, we shouldn’t neglect the importance of the person’s living conditions and education.
It is noted that people who live in poor conditions and don’t have a proper education tend to be less intelligent than people who live in a stable and financially secured environment.
Possible causes of a bad IQ score
Although scoring badly on an IQ test can be a true disappointment for the person who performed the test or the parents of the child who scored badly, it is important to bear in mind that these results often don’t match reality.
These scores can be lower than the actual ones, due to some circumstances and factors present during the performing of the test.
For example, the person is often under a lot of stress or has fear of the test results.
Also, these bad results can be caused by different emotional states and emotional agitation and anxiousness, or tiredness. Also, learning disabilities such as dyslexia or other can often be a reason for bad IQ scores and it is important to rule them out in such situations.
Because of these facts, intelligence tests have a standard deviation factor which fluctuates up to 20 points.
IQ 86 score meaning
IQ score of 86 is not a great IQ score, and it falls in the category of low average intelligence which ranges from IQ 80 to 89.
If you or your child has this score, you shouldn’t be worried, because level of intelligence can be raised up to 20 points. Intelligence increases through studies.
Having in mind that intelligence tests are usually conceptualized to test the person visual and spatial skills, their logic and reasoning, math, general knowledge and science, and other areas as well, improving your knowledge or your child’s knowledge and abilities in these areas is required.
Below are listed some of the possible activities you should do to increase IQ score:
Crossword puzzles – It is noted that solving crossword puzzles influences the person’s brain beneficially and increases the person’s logic and knowledge. It is also a perfect way to expand the person’s vocabulary.
Tutoring – Being able to afford a tutor for you or your child would immensely help in improving your knowledge or your child knowledge, especially easing your child in learning the matters and subjects taught at school.
Watching TV (informational programs) – Watching informational programs can be boring, but it is a great way to develop vocabulary and increase general knowledge.
Exercising – Another way to influence the forming of new neurons and synapses in the brain and increase the brain’s capacity and overall intelligence is doing exercises, so exercising is highly recommended.
Eating turmeric – Turmeric is very beneficial for the person’s brain due to the substance called curcumin. Curcumin is known to lower the risk of mental retardation. Because of that, consuming turmeric is highly recommendable.
Vitamin D supplements – Vitamin D benefits the brain and influences the restoring of neurons and increasing memory.
Enough sleep – Sleep is essential for the overall health and restoring of the person’s body and its functions, especially the brain and memory.
Breathing deeply – Deep breathing is essential to improve the inflow of air in the brain and that in turn improves its efficiency and abilities.
Playing a musical instrument – It is proven that playing musical instruments helps to increase the brain’s activity as well as to improve the person’s memory.
Learning a foreign language – The activity of learning a foreign language helps to increase the brain capacity and intelligence of the person. This also increases the person’s memory and their ability to process information.
Consuming fish oil – Fish oil or fatty acids from the Omega group are important for the development of brain cells.
With an IQ score of 86, the person can perform some menial jobs which are simple and repetitive and don’t require special knowledge, abilities or education. The person improves in doing them through repeating them.
These people can live independently but could have trouble in performing some life’s activities.
Nevertheless, you should never forget that intelligence level can be raised and that this IQ score is not something that cannot be changed significantly.