Intelligence has many various definitions, but in general, it is perceived as a person’s ability to perceive and receive information, as well as to transform them into knowledge.
Intelligence is also considered the person’s ability to understand, reason, solve problems, critical thinking, and creativity.
Research has proved that intelligence is not only a characteristic of human beings, but also of plants and animals. Humans have also created artificial intelligence, which is a characteristic of man-made machines.
Intelligence combines different cognitive skills of the person as well as their knowledge. It is measured mostly through intelligence tests which are created and performed by psychologists.
These tests are formulated to determine various aspects of the person’s intelligence. They contain different cognitive tasks, usually perceptual, conceptual, verbal and quantitative.
The results of these tests usually yield an IQ score (or intelligence quotient) of the person.
These tests are mostly used to determine the child’s mental age and how comparable is to the average IQ score of children who are that age. Psychologists often use intelligence tests during selection of new personnel and determining their abilities to perform a certain job.
The IQ score is used as an indication of the person’s intelligence. All intelligence tests have measure scales to enable us to determine with precision the intelligence level of the person.
Typical IQ scores range between 40 and 160. IQ scores above 140 consider the person highly gifted; scores between 90 and 109 are considered average intelligence, and scores below 90 are considered low average and borderline intelligence.
It is important to note that the person’s intelligence can improve through education and efforts. More educated people are more intelligent.
Education increases the person’s intelligence, which is why it is very important.
Types of intelligence
According to scientists and based on different research, there are different types of intelligence.
All of them in general agree that there is a common general intelligence factor, which describes the person’s ability to gain knowledge, adapt to new circumstances, reason, think abstract, and learn from their experiences.
People who have a higher general intelligence are faster learners than the ones who have lower general intelligence.
Scientists also agree that there is specific intelligence that reveals the person’s special skills to perform in various areas.
There is also an emotional intelligence, described as the capacity of a person to understand the emotions, motivations, desires, and intentions of other people.
Some psychologists differentiate fluid and crystalized intelligence. Fluid intelligence is described as the ability of the person to gain knowledge and learn new ways of problem solving and doing things.
Crystalized intelligence is the intelligence represented by the knowledge the person has acquired during their lifetime. The later type tends to increase as people get older, while the first type tends to decrease with age.
Some scientists advocate the idea of multiple intelligences. The reason for that is the fact that general intelligence tests only determine the person’s analytical intelligence and problem-solving abilities, and they don’t attend to the person’s practical abilities or their creativity.
Creative and practical intelligence are types of intelligence which mustn’t be neglected and undermined.
Intelligence quotient (IQ)
Intelligence tests are aiming to measure the person’s general intelligence factor. These tests are often created for different age groups, mainly because intelligence tends to change with aging through a process of standardization.
This process is done by giving the tests to various age groups and determining the average score for different ages.
Because intelligence has a tendency of increasing with every new generation due to various factors, the standardization process should be regularly done.
The IQ or intelligence quotient can be calculated by comparing the chronological age of the person with their mental age.
The formula for determining IQ is: IQ = mental age ÷ chronological age x 100.
For example, a child who is 11 and does an intelligence test for an 11 year old as well as the average 11 year old, has the IQ of 100 (11÷11×100=100). If a child who has 7 years does a test of a 10 year old as the average child of 10 years, the child’s IQ would be 143 (10÷7×100=143).
According to studies, genetics has a big role in creating the IQ of the person. That role is significantly larger than the role of environment. The IQ of the parents and their children is similar. The influence of genetic factors in the overall person’s intelligence rises as they age.
Besides the person’s genetics, great significance for the level of their intelligence has their environment and upbringing, as well as the living conditions they have lived in, especially in their young age.
According to studies, children who have grown in poverty have a lower IQ than the ones which lived in households which were financially well-off.
Possible causes of a bad IQ score
Scoring badly on an intelligence test doesn’t have to mean that the result is true. Oftentimes bad results are caused by different factors and don’t reveal the actual level of the person’s intelligence.
Some of these factors can be anxiousness, tiredness, fear, and similar states which prevent the person from giving their maximum efforts in solving these tests.
Because of that, intelligence tests have a standard deviation factor and IQ scores in general fluctuate from 10 to 15 or even 20 points.
It is also very important to check whether the person or the child has some learning disabilities, such as dyslexia. In some cases, the bad results are caused by attention disorders.
You should always rule out these conditions when bad IQ scores appear in tests.
IQ 74 score meaning
IQ score of 74 is a score which belongs to borderline intelligence which comprises of IQ of 71 to 84). IQ scores lower than 84 are considered low, and that indicates the low cognitive ability of the person.
This IQ is an indication that the person will most likely face difficulties during some life activities.
Nevertheless, IQ score of 74 should not discourage the person, or the parent of the child who scored 74 in their IQ test. Intelligence can be raised through education and efforts to improve the person’s cognitive abilities.
It takes patience and effort, but the person’s intelligence can be raised by 10 or 20 points.
It is important improve the general knowledge of the child, or the person with IQ score of 74. Also, it is important to improve their spatial and visual skills and their reasoning.
Here are some of the things the person should to increase an IQ score of 74:
Crossword puzzles – Solving crossword puzzles influences the development of the person’s brain and increases their knowledge and logic. That is one of the best ways to expand the person’s vocabulary.
Tutoring – Being tutored by a specialized professional in certain areas helps children to improve their knowledge in these areas and eases them in learning the matters they are taught at school.
Watching TV (informational programs) – Informational programs (like the news and similar) might not be interesting to many people, especially children, but they are a great way for the person to develop their vocabulary and increase their knowledge.
Exercising – Exercising is a great way to boost forming of new neurons and synapses in the brain and in that way increasing the person’s brain capacity and overall intelligence.
Eating turmeric – Turmeric roots contain curcumin which has a beneficial effect on the person’s brain. Curcumin lowers the risk of mental retardation.
Vitamin D supplements – Vitamin D is known for its beneficial influence on the brain. It is necessary for brain restoring and increasing memory, especially for older people who have a tendency of memory loss.
Enough sleep – Having enough sleep is essential for the revitalization of the body and its functions, as well as brain functioning and improving the person’s memory.
Breathing deeply – Deep breathing helps improve the inflow of air in the brain which improves the brain’s efficiency and overall ability.
Playing a musical instrument – Scientists determined that playing musical instruments helps increase the brain’s activity and improves memory.
Learning a foreign language – Foreign languages are an excellent way to increase the person’s brain capacity and intelligence. It also increases the memory and ability of processing information.
Consuming fish oil – Because human brains mostly consist of fat, predominately fatty acids from the Omega group, it is important to consume fish which is rich in Omega fatty acids to help produce and develop the person’s brain cells.
IQ score of 74 makes the person able to perform simple menial jobs which are repetitive. The person gets better at performing them in time.
They can perform jobs which don’t require some special education or skills, such as jobs of maids, gardeners, janitors, etc. They can have certain level of independence, but they cannot easily perform all life’s activities.
You should always keep in mind that intelligence can be increased and that with effort and education the person can improve their intelligence significantly.