Intelligence is an ability to receive information and gain knowledge; comprehend or understand something; capacity for understanding, reasoning, problem-solving, creativity, and critical thinking.
Intelligence isn’t only human characteristic and is observed in plants and animals as well.
There is also artificial intelligence, or machine intelligence, created by humans. Intelligence is a combination of different cognitive skills and knowledge.
The word intelligence originates from the Latin verb intelligere, which means to comprehend or to perceive.
Intelligence is usually measured through intelligence tests or IQ tests. These tests are typically performed by psychologists, and they consist of different cognitive tasks which can be perceptual, verbal, conceptual, and quantitative.
After calculating the results of the tests, these tests give the intelligence quotient (IQ) of the person performing the test.
IQ tests are often used to determine the mental age of the child and checking whether it is comparable to the average IQ of children of that age.
IQ is an indicator for assessing the person’s intelligence. Intelligence tests usually have scale scores which allow the results to be interpreted with high precision. IQ scores are typically between the range of 40 to 160, and the 100 being the average.
IQ scores below 90 are considered below average, while the ones above 110 are considered above average. There are different IQ tests, and most of them are specialized to determine different aspects of the person’s intelligence.
An important fact that should be noted is that intelligence can be improved by education. The more years the person’s spends educating themselves, the more intelligent they will be.
Also, children who enter school a year earlier have a higher IQ than the ones who wait the next year to begin school.
Types of intelligence
Different skills and abilities which are measured by intelligence tests have a common general intelligence factor, which is the general ability of the person to gain knowledge, abstract thinking, adapting to new situations, reasoning, and learning from their experiences.
Generally, people with higher general intelligence tend to learn faster than people with lower general intelligence.
Besides general intelligence, there is also a specific intelligence, which represents the special skills of the person in various areas.
There is also fluid and crystalized intelligence. The first one is the ability of the person to learn new ways of doing things and solving problems, and the other represents the knowledge we have acquired during our life.
Crystalized intelligence increases as we get older and fluid intelligence decreases as we age.
Another type is emotional intelligence, which is the capacity of the person to understand the motivations, intentions, desires, and emotions of other people.
There is also an idea of multiple intelligences, which arose because traditional intelligence tests only assess the person’s analytical intelligence and their ability to resolve problems, but these tests don’t assess the person’s creativity or their practicality.
Creative people demonstrate the traits of expertise and great knowledge about the areas where they express their creativity.
They also have the gift of imagination and visually represent the outcome of their creative endeavors. They are also prone to taking risks, they have a great desire to perform creative work and enjoy working in creative environments.
On the other side, practical intelligence is a type of intelligence which cannot be learned from books and it represents a common sense that the person has gained through their experience.
This type is correlated with general intelligence.
Intelligence quotient (IQ)
Almost all intelligence tests aim to measure the general intelligence factor. Of course, intelligence changes with aging.
For that reason, intelligence tests are standardized by giving them to solve to various age groups of people and then determining the average score for each age level.
The process of standardization should be done regularly because the level of intelligence in the population changes over time, that is, there is an observed tendency of increase of the level in intelligence which is explained by various reasons, for example, easier access to information, etc.
Intelligence quotient or IQ is calculated by comparing the mental age of the person to their chronological age. IQ is the measure of intelligence adjusted for a certain age, or the age at which an individual is performing intellectually.
IQ is calculated by the following formula: IQ = mental age ÷ chronological age x 100.
To explain it simple, a child of 10 who does the test as well as the average 10 year old has the IQ of 100, or 10 ÷ 10 x 100 = 100. If the 8 year old does the test as the average 10 year old child, this child has the IQ of 125, or 10 ÷ 8 x 100 = 125.
Intelligence tests are often used by psychologists during the process of selection of personnel, especially testing the person’s abilities to perform a certain job or tasks.
Studies have shown that genetics has a bigger role in creating of the IQ score than environment.
It is found that the correlation of the IQs of the parents and their biological children is significant. The role of genetic factors in the level of intelligence of a person grows as the person ages.
Also, the person’s upbringing, living conditions, and nurture are very important for the person’s intelligence level.
It is noted that children from poor households have lower IQ than children from households which can provide a lot to their children.
Possible causes of a bad IQ score
Sometimes bad scores on IQ tests don’t represent the real picture. The person doing the test might have been under stress while doing them because of the fear regarding the results.
Also, bad results can be caused by different kinds of distractions, such as being tired or disturbed by some things that have been going on in the person’s life.
That is why with these tests there is always a standard deviation factored in the test. IQ scores tend to fluctuate from 10 to 15 or 20 points.
Often bad scores are caused by some learning disabilities of the person, such as dyslexia, or attention disorders.
That is why it is important to rule out potential learning disabilities when a bad IQ score appears in tests.
IQ 71 score meaning
The IQ score of 71 is considered an IQ of a borderline intellectual functioning (between 71 and 84 IQ). If the IQ of a person is lower than 85, it is considered low which means that the cognitive ability of the person is low.
Although this IQ implies that the person will face some difficulties in performing some life activities and tasks, they should not be discouraged, because IQ changes over time and it could certainly be raised through the person’s efforts and education.
If your child happens to have this IQ score, there is no need to worry much. It will require patience on your behalf and the behalf of your child, but this score can be increased.
You should try working on improving the child’s reasoning, their visual and spatial skills, as well as their general knowledge.
With such effort, it is highly likely that you will be able to help your child raise their IQ score by 10 or even 20 points and reach the average intelligence level.
Some of the recommended things you should do to increase a 71 IQ score are:
Solving crossword puzzles – By solving crossword puzzles, the person improves their verbal skills, and increases the level of intelligence.
Hiring a tutor – If it is a child that has an IQ score of 71, than the tutor will help the child understand better the maters they are being taught at school.
Watching informational programs on TV – Watching informational programs on TV is a great way for a person, especially a child to develop their vocabulary and learn new words and their meanings.
Doing exercises – Doing exercises is very beneficial for the brain, and influences the forming of new neurons and synapses in the brain.
Eating turmeric root – Curcumin, which is found in turmeric has a beneficial effect on the brain and it lowers the risk of mental retardation.
Taking vitamin D supplements – Vitamin D is vital for the health of our brain. According to scientists, vitamin D is necessary to increase memory and restore the brain, especially with older people who are prone to the loss of memory.
Having enough sleep – Sleep is essential for restoring the body and improving memory and brain functioning.
Deep breathing – By breathing deeply, the inflow of air in the brain increases and improves the brain’s ability and its efficiency.
Playing musical instruments – To play a musical instrument is a great way to increase the brain activity and improve the person’s memory. According to studies, children’s IQ scores increased as they began receiving musical lessons.
Learning a foreign language – Learning a foreign language increases the brain capacity and the person’s intelligence, especially in children. Children who start learning a foreign language during their young age are found to be smarter than their peers. Learning a foreign language increases the person’s memory and ability of receiving and processing information.
Consuming fish oil – Brain is mostly consisted of fat, and most of them are fatty acids from the Omega group. That is why it is important to consume fish rich in Omega fatty acids which help produce and develop brain cells.
People with IQ score of 71 are able to perform different kinds of menial jobs, such as the jobs of a maid, janitor, gardener, or other kinds of jobs which don’t require special skills or education.
They can perform jobs which are simple and repetitive, and they get better at them with repeating them. These people can live independent lives, but with difficulties.
It is important to note that an IQ score of 71 is not a thing to be desperate about because intelligence can be changed and significantly be increased with focused effort.