Intelligence is considered the person’s ability to receive various information and gain knowledge.
It is also the person’s ability to understand things and reason, solve problems, their creativity and ability to think critically.
Not only humans have intelligence; it is observed in animals and plants also. People have created something called artificial intelligence which is the intelligence of machines and computer programs.
Intelligence combines different skills and knowledge. The word intelligence comes from a Latin verb – intelligere, meaning to perceive or to comprehend. It is measured most commonly through intelligence tests.
Typically, intelligence tests are prepared by psychologists.
These tests consist of various cognitive tasks, such as perceptual, conceptual, verbal, or quantitative. They are often used to determine the exact mental age of a child to judge whether they are comparable with the average IQ of children of that age group.
The results of these tests give the person’s IQ score, or their intelligence quotient (IQ). The IQ is used as an indicator to assess the person’s intelligence.
IQ tests usually have scale scores that help interpret the results and get precise IQ scores.
IQ scores usually range between 40 and 160. Average intelligence is between 90 and 109. Results below 90 are considered below average intelligence and results above 110 are considered above average intelligence.
IQ tests are different and are often specialized to determine various aspects of the person’s intelligence.
Intelligence is not a stagnant ability and can be improved through organized and focused effort. Education plays an important part in the development of the person’s intelligence.
Types of intelligence
According to various scientists and psychologists, there are different types of intelligence.
There is a common general intelligence factor, which represents the general ability of an individual to gain knowledge, think abstractly, adapt to some new circumstances, reason, as well as to learn from experience.
It is a fact that people with higher general intelligence learn faster than people with lower general intelligence.
There are also specific intelligences, which represent special skills of people in various areas.
According to some scientists, there are also fluid and crystalized intelligence. Fluid intelligence represents our ability to learn new things and ways of solving problems, as well as learn new ways of doing things. Crystalized intelligence consists of knowledge we acquired through life.
While the fluid intelligence tends to decrease as we grow older, crystalized tends to increase.
There is also emotional intelligence, that represents the capacity of the person to understand and accept other people’s desires, intentions, motivations, and emotions.
Many scientists opt for the idea of multiple intelligences because they realized that most intelligence tests assess only the person’s analytical intelligence and ability of solving problems and neglects the other important types, such as our creative intelligence and our practical intelligence.
Creative intelligence undoubtedly exists. Creative people usually have a great knowledge in the areas in which they tend to express their creativity.
These people have a vivid imagination and are able to visually see the outcome of their creative efforts. Practical intelligence is similar to general intelligence. This is a type of intelligence that isn’t learned from books and is gained mostly through experience.
Intelligence quotient (IQ)
Intelligence tests usually measure the general intelligence factor. Because intelligence changes as people grow older, these tests must be standardized for different age groups.
Also, the process of standardization should be regularly done because it is observed that intelligence of human population has a tendency of growth, due to different circumstances, mostly because of the easier access to information.
The final result of the IQ test is the IQ quotient or intelligence quotient. The IQ of a person is calculated by comparing the chronological and mental age of the person. IQ is the measure of intelligence for a certain age at which the individual is performing intellectually.
The IQ is calculated by using the formula: IQ = mental age ÷ chronological age x 100.
For example, a 10-year-old child who solves an IQ test for a 10-year-old child at a level of a 10 year old child, has the IQ of 100 (10÷10=100). When a child who is 8 years old solves an IQ test for a 10-year-old as the average 10-year-old child, it has the IQ of 125 (10÷8=125).
Psychologists often use intelligence tests when they need to assess their candidates’ abilities during the selection of personnel. They especially test their abilities to perform a certain job or do a certain task.
Genetics is very important for the IQ score of the person. It has a much bigger role in influencing our intelligence than our environment or other life circumstances. Often the IQ score of the person and their parents is similar.
Nevertheless, we shouldn’t neglect the importance of the upbringing, living conditions, the care the person receives in forming the level of their intelligence.
The fact is that children who live in poor life conditions have a lower IQ than children who are raised in wealthy households.
Possible causes of a bad IQ score
Not all bad IQ scores are real. Sometimes the score doesn’t present the real picture. It often happens that the person doesn’t perform well on intelligence test because they were under stress or influenced by some other distracting factors.
Often the fear of the results paralyzes the person who ends up doing the test badly.
Being tired or disturbed for some reason could also affect the performance on the test. That is why there is a standard deviation factored in most tests and IQ scores often fluctuate from 10 to 20 points.
Bad scores on IQ tests can also be caused by learning disabilities of the person, and it is necessary to them rule out in case of bad IQ scores.
IQ 78 score meaning
IQ score of 78 is a borderline intellectual functioning score (which ranges between 71 and 84 IQ). The IQ lower than 85 is considered low, and that means that the person’s cognitive ability of the person is low.
It is likely that the person will experience difficulties while doing some life activities, but IQ of 78 should not be a discouragement.
The person or the parent of a child with this IQ should never lose from their sight that intelligence level can be increased through efforts and education. Be patient and the results will come.
If your child has scored an IQ 78 on the test, you should work on improving your child’s reasoning, the visual and spatial skills, and their general knowledge.
If you have such an approach, it is likely that you will help your child raise their overall IQ score for up to 10 or 20 points.
There are some activities you and/or your child are recommended on doing if you want to increase a 78 IQ score.
Some of them are:
Solving crossword puzzles – Solving crossword puzzles is known to increase the person’s knowledge and their verbal skills, which in turn raises their intelligence.
Hiring a tutor – Hiring a tutor is an excellent idea, especially for a child which has an IQ score of 78. The tutor will help the child in understanding better the things they are taught at school and help them get better results in their school activities.
Watching informational programs on TV – Informational programs can be very useful for improving the person’s intelligence, because they develop their vocabulary and help the person learn new words and their meanings.
Doing exercises – Exercises are beneficial for the whole body, especially the brain. They help in the formation of new neurons and synapses in the brain.
Eating turmeric root – Turmeric is very healthy, especially because the Curcumin found in turmeric has a beneficial effect on the brain. It is known that Curcumin lowers the risk of mental retardation.
Taking vitamin D supplements – Vitamin D is essential for our brain’s health. According to science, vitamin D is necessary for the memory and it helps in restoring the brain.
Having enough sleep – Sleeping enough is essential for restoring the whole body and improving the person’s memory and brain functioning.
Deep breathing – Breathing deeply, helps the inflow of air in the brain and improves the brain’s ability as well as its efficiency.
Playing musical instruments – Playing musical instruments is an excellent way to increase the brain activity as well as to improve the person’s memory.
Learning a foreign language – Learning foreign languages is known to increase the brain capacity as well as the person’s intelligence, especially in children. Learning a foreign language is also known to increase the person’s memory and ability to receive and process information.
Consuming fish oil – Brain is mostly fat, and most of the fats are fatty acids from the Omega group. Because of that it is important to consume fish with a lot of Omega fatty acids. They help produce and develop brain cells.
People with IQ score of 78 are able to perform simple and repetitive jobs which don’t require much skills and knowledge.
They get better at performing these jobs with time. They can live independently but will most likely experience some difficulties.
You should keep in mind that you can raise the level of intelligence with effort and patience.