Intelligence represents a capacity of a person to generate information as well as to gain knowledge. It represents the capacity of solving problems, critical thinking, reasoning, creativity, understanding, etc.
Animals and plants also have intelligence according to scientists. Humans created artificial intelligence as well, which is the intelligence of computer programs and machines.
Intelligence is a combination of various cognitive skills of the person and their knowledge. It is usually measured through intelligence tests created by psychologists. These tests are a combination of cognitive tasks, mostly verbal, conceptual, quantitative, or perceptual.
The results of intelligence tests are usually expressed in IQ scores or intelligence quotients.
Most often, intelligence tests are used to determine whether a child is at the mental age of average children of that age. Psychologists also use specially designed intelligence tests to evaluate the skills and abilities of their potential candidates during the recruiting process, which aim to assess whether the person is suitable to perform certain tasks or jobs.
IQ score is often used to indicate the level of intelligence of a person. Intelligence tests have precise scales used to determine this score.
Although the scales are precise, IQ tests are not always the right measure of the person’s intelligence, and the main reason is the failure of the person to perform well on the test and give their maximum effort.
In general, IQ scores tend to range between 40 and 160. Most people fall into the average intelligence group which ranges between 90 and 109. Results below 90 are considered below average, while results above 109 are above average intelligence.
An important fact that should be considered when determining the person’s level intelligence is that intelligence can be changed and increased through education and effort.
Types of intelligence
According to different psychologists and scientists, there are various types of intelligence.
They generally agree that there is a common general intelligence factor, which is the person’s ability to gain knowledge, think critically or abstract, adapt to various circumstances, learn from their experiences, reason, etc.
Higher general intelligence gives people the ability to learn faster than those with lower general intelligence.
Besides general intelligence, there are specific intelligences, or abilities and skills of the person in various areas.
There is also emotional intelligence, and that is the capacity of the person to understand and accept other people’s desires, emotions, motivations, and intentions.
Some psychologists make a difference between fluid and crystalized intelligence.
While fluid intelligence represents the ability of a person to gain knowledge and ways of dealing with things and solving problems, crystalized intelligence is considered an intelligence gained through experience and growing up. Fluid intelligence decreases while crystalized tends to increase with aging.
Some scientists consider that besides general, there are creative and practical intelligence.
Creative is the intelligence which represents the creative abilities of a person and their ability to visually present the results of their creative endeavors before they are materialized.
Practical intelligence is similar to general intelligence and represents the ability of a person to solve problems and manage their way out of difficulties.
Intelligence quotient (IQ)
Intelligence quotient is used to measure the person’s level of intelligence. Intelligence tests mostly measure the person’s general intelligence.
These tests are made for different age groups because intelligence level tends to change (increase) with aging.
Intelligence tests go through standardization which is performed by giving tests to different age groups to determine the average IQ scores for each age group.
The process of standardization of IQ tests is regularly done because it is observed that intelligence has a tendency of increasing with new generations.
The IQ quotient is calculated by comparing the chronological and mental age of the person, through the formula: IQ = mental age ÷ chronological age x 100.
As an example, a child of 10 who solves an IQ test for a 10 year old with results that match the average score of a 10 year old, has an average IQ of 100. (10÷10×100=100). A child of 7 who does a test for a 10 year old as well as an average 10 year old child, has an IQ of 143 (10÷7×100=143).
According to studies, genetics has a very important role in the level of IQ. Parents and their children often have a similar IQ.
Besides genetics, the role of the person’s environment and upbringing, as well as the financial situation especially while growing up shouldn’t be neglected because they play a significant role as well.
It is observed that children with less education and living in poor conditions tend to be less intelligent than children who live in wealthy households and are more educated.
Possible causes of a bad IQ score
Bad scores on IQ tests are very disappointing and disturbing, either for the person who scored badly, or the parent of a child who scored badly on the test.
There are many reasons that can cause the person’s distraction during the test; the main reasons being stress, fear of the outcome, emotional disturbance, anxiousness, tiredness, or other psycho-physical condition.
In some cases, the person has a learning disability, such as dyslexia or similar disability, which prevents them from scoring their maximum on the test, and that should be ruled out as well when the person scores low on the IQ test.
Because of that, IQ tests usually have a tolerance score of up to 20 points.
IQ 87 score meaning
IQ score of 87 falls in the category of low average intelligence. Low average intelligence ranges from IQ 80 to 89.
If you or your child has scored 87 on an IQ test, that fact shouldn’t upset you very much, because the level of intelligence can be raised up to 20 points through efforts and patience.
It is known that intelligence level can be increased through education and some other habits.
Intelligence tests are in most cases conceptualized to test the person visual and spatial skills, as well as their logic and reasoning, math, their general knowledge and science, but other areas as well.
Because of that, working on improving your knowledge or your child’s knowledge and skills in these areas is required.
We have listed some of the desired activities a person should do to increase their IQ score:
Crossword puzzle – By solving crossword puzzles, the person stimulates the brain and influences it beneficially. Crossword puzzles increase the person’s logic and their knowledge and are a great way to expand the person’s vocabulary as well.
Tutoring – Taking lessons from a specialized tutor is a great way to help yourself or your child improve your knowledge. A tutor might also help your child in overcoming difficulties while learning the materials taught at school.
Watching informational programs on TV – Watching informational programs on TV sure sounds boring, but it might be a great way to expand your vocabulary and raise the level of general knowledge.
Exercising – Exercising is not only good for your overall health and staying in shape, it is also beneficial for the brain’s health. It helps in forming new neurons and synapses as well as in increasing the brain’s capacity. It is beneficial for raising the person’s intelligence.
Eating turmeric – Turmeric is a healthy plant, and is beneficial for the person’s brain because of the substance it contains, called curcumin. This substance is known to lower the risk of mental retardation.
Vitamin D – Vitamin D is beneficial for the brain’s health because it influences the restoring of neurons in the brain, and increasing the person’s memory.
Sleeping – Sleeping is very important for the person’s wellbeing and health, as well as restoring the whole body including the brain and its functions and memory.
Deep breathing – Deep breathing is very important for the inflow of air in the brain to improve its efficiency and overall abilities.
Playing music – Playing a musical instrument increases the brains’ activity and improves the memory.
Learning a foreign language – Learning a foreign language is helpful in increasing the brain’s capacity as well as the intelligence of a person. Learning a language increases the person’s memory as well as their ability to process information.
Fish oil – Fish oil is excellent for the brain because of the fatty acids from the Omega group it contains which are important for the development of brain cells.
A person who has an IQ of 87 can perform simple menial jobs, usually repetitive in nature, where the person gets better at performing the job in time.
These jobs don’t require some special knowledge or abilities and skills from the person, and they don’t require some special education.
People with this IQ score are able to live an independent life, but usually with some difficulties in certain life’s activities.
However, intelligence can be raised and they should not be discouraged. Instead, focused and determined action is required so that the person raises their intelligence.