Intelligence is the ability of people to gain knowledge and generate new information, solve problems, understand, reason, think critically, be creative, and so on. Plants and animals also have intelligence, according to scientists.
Also, humans have created a type of artificial intelligence which is machine man-made intelligence, possessed by machines and computer programs.
Intelligence represents a combination of cognitive skills and knowledge. The most common way of measuring the person’s intelligence is through intelligence tests. There are various types of intelligence tests and also different criteria for determining the person’s level of intelligence.
Intelligence tests are mostly created by psychologists and are a mix of cognitive tasks, which can be conceptual, quantitative, verbal, and perceptual.
In most cases, these tests serve to determine the mental age of children by comparing it with the average mental age of children of that age. That is done by determining the IQ or intelligence quotient, which is calculated through intelligence tests.
Psychologists also use intelligence tests during recruitment process, or the process of choosing suitable candidates for job vacancies. The tests serve to determine whether the person is capable of performing certain tasks or jobs.
Intelligence tests’ results give the person’s IQ score or the intelligence quotient. These tests have precise scales which precisely determine the person’s level of intelligence.
Regardless of the attempts to make these tests as accurate and precise as possible, these results are not very reliable because in some cases, due to objective circumstances, the person cannot perform well on the test, and the result doesn’t reflect the actual level of the person’s intelligence.
For example, a person who is doing the test influenced by stress, fear, or some other disturbing emotion, can easily score badly on an IQ test. Because of that, intelligence tests have incorporated tolerance score of up to 20 points.
IQ scores in general range between 40 and 140. There are different scales that determine the level of intelligence according the person’s IQ score, but it can be said that average intelligence ranges between 90 and 109.
All scores which are below 90 are considered below average IQ scores and all scores above 109 are considered above average IQ scores.
What is important to note and remember is the fact that intelligence is changeable and can be raised through education in some cases up to 20 points.
Types of intelligence
Science and psychologists differentiate many types of intelligence. The common is the general intelligence factor which, according to scientists is the person’s ability to think abstract, gain knowledge, adapt to circumstances, learn from experience, etc.
It is a known fact that people who possess higher general intelligence are faster learners than people with lower general intelligence.
Scientists agree that there are also specific intelligences which represent the person’s special abilities and skills in different areas.
There is emotional intelligence as well, as the person’s ability to understand and accept other people’s intentions, desires, emotions, and motivations.
Some psychologists make difference between fluid and crystalized intelligence. While fluid intelligence is the ability of the person to learn new ways of solving problems and dealing with things in their life, crystalized intelligence is one gained through the person’s life experience. Fluid tends to decrease as the person ages, while crystalized tends to increase.
There are creative and practical intelligence as well, according to some scientists. Creative intelligence represents the creative ability of the person and gives the person the ability to visualize the result of their creative activities before they become real.
Practical intelligence resembles general intelligence and is the person’s ability to resolve problems and find their way out of difficulties.
Intelligence quotient (IQ)
The intelligence quotient, IQ, is a measure of the person’s level of intelligence, measured through intelligence tests.
These tests are usually created to test the person’s general intelligence. These tests are for different age groups, because intelligence is different between different generations of people and changes with aging.
The tests are standardized for different age groups by determining an average score for various age groups. The process of standardization should be done on a regular basis because it’s noted that intelligence increases with every new generation.
The intelligence quotient is calculated by comparing the chronological age and mental age of a person (IQ = mental age ÷ chronological age x 100).
Example: a child of 10 who solves a test for 10 year old children as well as the average for that age, has an IQ score of 100 (10÷10×100=100), but if such test is solved by a 7 year old as well as an average 10 year old child, than that child is considered to have an IQ of 143 (10÷7×100=143).
Research has determined that genetics plays a significant role in the level of IQ and that parents tend to have similar IQ as their children. Also, we shouldn’t neglect the role of upbringing, education, nurture, care, environment, etc.
Living conditions are very important. It is noted that children who are raised in poor conditions without proper education and care, tend to be less intelligent than children who are raised in households where they were nurtured, educated, and well cared for.
Possible causes of a bad IQ score
As we mentioned earlier in the text, IQ scores don’t have to be completely accurate. The person solving the test can perform badly and score a low IQ score because of some circumstances which were present during the test.
The person or child solving the test might have been disturbed, frightened, anxious, tired, etc.
These are all circumstances which lower the person’s ability to concentrate and give accurate answers on the test in the required amount of time.
Also, learning disabilities such as dyslexia could also be a cause for bad scores on IQ tests.
For that reason, people or parents of children who have scored badly on IQ tests don’t need to be so disappointed and worried; that is why intelligence tests have incorporated a standard deviation factor, which can fluctuate for up to 20 points.
Another important thing to note is that by solving different IQ tests you are most likely to get different results, and there’s no need for discouragement or depression.
IQ 93 score meaning
An IQ of 93 belongs to the category of average IQ score and indicates that the person has average intelligence, which is the same as most people. This IQ score is common and there’s no need to be disturbed about it.
If you are not satisfied with how well you have scored on the IQ test, or you child scored on the IQ test, it is good to know that the score can be raised through efforts and education even up to 20 points.
Intelligence can be increased and that is an encouraging fact. There’s always a possibility that you were nervous and distracted while doing the test and that is what caused this score.
However, if the score 93 or round 93 appears after doing some more IQ tests, you can do some activities to raise it.
You should work on improving your skills, both visual and spatial, as well as your general knowledge, knowledge of science and other areas. You need to improve your knowledge in these areas (or your child’s knowledge).
There is a wide choice of activities you can choose to help increase your intelligence (or your child’s intelligence). For example, you can:
Do some crossword puzzles, because they are a great way to increase your brain’s activity.
Read, because it is also an excellent way to increase the level of your intelligence, and, by reading, you continuously absorb knowledge.
Play Sudoku is also an awesome way to raise your brain’s activity and help develop your logic.
Drink a lot of water, which is essential for our overall health and especially important for the brain’s health and activity. The cells in the brain need hydration to operate with maximum efficiency. Make sure you drink a lot of water during the day.
Have a proper breakfast and eat regularly, because our brain cannot function at a satisfactory level if we don’t eat properly and we leave it without a fuel which it requires to operate.
Set goals, which is also important because it keeps our brain busy and working to discover the right ideas and activities needed to accomplish these goals.
Have enough rest, because it is very important for the proper functioning of our body, especially the brain. When we don’t sleep well or we don’t sleep enough the brain suffers and cannot perform at a desired level.
Eat healthy bacteria (through consuming yogurt or other food), as they are very beneficial for the brain because they help in the growth of neurons.
Exercise, because is a great way to keep your body, but also your brain in shape. It stimulates your thinking and raises your intelligence.
Breathe deeply, because it is essential for your brain to have enough oxygen.
Always keep your brain occupied, but make necessary rests and breaks.
Try making notes of the things you have accomplished or finished because in that way you will increase your memory as well as your intelligence.
Listen to classical music, because studies have shown that it increases your intellectual productivity.
These are only some of the activities and things that you can choose to do to raise your intelligence. The most important thing is not to give up and believe that it is possible to do it, which it certainly is.