Intelligence is a trait which makes our lives easier and enables us to achieve our desires and goals without much effort.
People with higher level of intelligence are considered more fortunate than the ones who don’t have such level of intellectual capacity, but in reality, intelligence isn’t worth much if the person lacks initiative and action.
People noticed the difference between different individual’s intellectual qualities long time ago, but intelligence was first measured in the 20th century. The first intelligence test was created in France and was commissioned by the French Ministry of Education.
The test was created by Alfred Binet and his assistant Simon who was a medical student. The task was to create a way to measure children’s learning capacities and determine which children needed additional help and support in learning.
Alfred Binet had a lot of experience in observing children’s behavior in various situations and occasions. They used published research on the subject while creating the test.
The Simon – Binet test had thirty tasks which were lined in order of difficulty. The easiest tasks were so easy, that everyone was capable of solving them. The tasks grew more difficult as the candidate approached towards the end of the test.
The children needed to answer questions, describe words, repeat numbers, create sentences out of given words, etc. The test was first applied on a group of 50 children, which were divided in 5 age groups where each group contained 10 children.
These children were considered to have average intellectual abilities and were chosen by their teachers because of this trait.
The test was first used to determine what could be considered average level of intelligence and then revised to be able to test other children’s mental capacity and compare it with average intelligence for their age.
If the child, according to the Simon – Binet test had a mental capacity higher than the average mental capacity for his age, this child was considered above average smart. If the child had a mental capacity lower than the average for his age, he was considered below average smart.
Simon – Binet test is not 100% accurate way to measure intelligence, and even Binet was aware of that. He knew how complex and versatile intelligence as a trait was. He knew that thirty tasks could only give a hint about how smart some child actually was.
Binet was aware of the influence of genetics and environment on the development of intelligence, and he also knew that intelligence isn’t fixed and could be improved.
The Simon – Binet test was accepted in many countries which transformed it accordingly to their needs. There are many intelligence tests nowadays, although the Simon – Binet test is still in use. Recruiters use these tests to select the best candidate for the job.
Intelligence as a trait is not easy to define. It is complex and versatile, and it cannot be easily described in one sentence or in one type.
In most cases, intelligence is considered a blend of different cognitive skills and talents, like the ability to understand, reason, make decisions, solve problems, think critically, learn, especially from experience, be creative, etc.
Because of its characteristics, intelligence tests are usually made of different cognitive tasks.
These tasks can be verbal, perceptual, conceptual, or quantitative. These tests are usually created to measure the person’s level of general intelligence.
The test helps determine the mental age of the person which is then used to determine the intelligence quotient of the person or their IQ.
These tests have scales to determine the results but because these results can sometimes be inaccurate, the scales often have a tolerance of up to 20 points.
Today mostly used IQ scale is the Wechsler. According to this scale:
- IQ above 130 is in the category of Very Superior intelligence
- IQ between 120 and 129 is in the category of Superior intelligence
- IQ between 109 and 119 is in the category of High Average intelligence
- IQ between 90 and 109 is in the category of Average intelligence
- IQ between 80 and 90 is in the category of Low Average intelligence
- IQ between 70 and 79 is in the category of Borderline intelligence
- IQ 69 and lower is in the category of Extremely Low intelligence
Even when the IQ we have scored on the test doesn’t satisfy us, there is no need to despair. Intelligence is a trait that can be increased through brain stimulating activities and education.
Types of intelligence
We mentioned how complex and versatile intelligence is. It consists of different talents, skills, and abilities, and that requires the existence of more than one type of intelligence. These types are:
General intelligence – this is considered the most known of all types of intelligence. First tests and most tests are created to measure this type of intelligence. General intelligence basically represents the cognitive skills of the person. The level of this intelligence reveals how able is the person to gain knowledge, reason, adapt to circumstances, etc.
Specific intelligences – these are types which relate with talents and abilities in various areas. These specific intelligences are:
- Interpersonal intelligence or people smart;
- Logical – mathematical intelligence or number reasoning smart;
- Intrapersonal intelligence or self-smart;
- Bodily/kinesthetic intelligence or bodily smart;
- Visual-spatial intelligence or picture smart;
- Musical intelligence or music smart;
- Naturalist intelligence or nature smart;
- Verbal – linguistic intelligence or word smart;
Crystalized intelligence – is a kind developed during the person’s life through various experiences. This type tends to increase as people age.
Practical intelligence – is the ability of finding practical ideas and solutions for everyday matters. Practical intelligence is similar to general.
Fluid intelligence – this type reveals the person’s ability to discover innovative ways of doing things and solving problems. This is a type which tends to decrease with age.
Creative intelligence – this type of intelligence reveal the person’s creative side and their ability to creatively deal with everyday matters, solve problems, as well as to create things.
Emotional intelligence – is considered essential for human interactions. It represents the ability of understanding people’s reactions, feelings, and emotions. Those with high emotional intelligence are good in communicating with people and usually able to establish relationships with strangers with ease.
Intelligence quotient (IQ)
Intelligence quotient reveals the level of intelligence. It is calculated by solving intelligence tests. Intelligence tests are mostly created to measure general level of intelligence and are made for different age groups because intelligence increases with age.
Intelligence also increases in new generations and that is why intelligence tests should be standardized regularly.
The formula for calculating the IQ is the following: mental age ÷ chronological age x 100 = IQ. Mental age is determined through the IQ tests and then compared to the person’s chronological age.
If some child who is 7 years old solves an IQ test in the level of a 10 year old, that child can be considered very intelligent with an IQ of 142 (10 ÷ 7 x 100 = 142).
IQ level is a combination of different factors. Genetics is one of the most important factors in forming the IQ level, but environment and education are as equally important.
Children who live in poor living conditions, who lack proper care and nourishment as well as proper education, tend to decrease their mental capacities, and cannot reach their full intellectual potential if the circumstances don’t change for the better.
On the other hand, children with average mental capacities who have proper care and education tend to increase their inborn intellectual capacity and achieve success beyond their natural ability.
Possible causes of a bad IQ score
IQ scores can sometimes be inaccurate. There can be various reasons for a wrong IQ score, but the main reason is the person’s mental and physical state while doing the test.
If the person is anxious, feels tired, frightened, worried, stressed, or experiences some other issues which prevents them from focusing on the test, the results will be incorrect.
Also, people who have learning disabilities, like ADHD or dyslexia, also have problems in getting the score which reveals their exact intelligence level.
Because of this IQ tests have tolerant result scales which tolerate up to 10 or 20
IQ 146 score meaning
IQ score of 146 is a very high intelligence score. According to the Wechsler IQ scale, it is in the category Very Superior intelligence.
People with this score fall into the group of 2% of human population of smartest people on the planet. They are usually talented and very gifted in different areas.
If you have an IQ score of 146, you probably have a lot of potential and many skills and talents in different areas. You probably have a lot of interests as well. This gives you the ability to achieve a lot of success if you desire.
Also, this IQ score isn’t a guarantee that you will be successful, and it only indicates that you have potential to succeed in many areas.
People with this IQ score usually have academic education but that doesn’t have to be the case.
If you don’t have working habits, initiative, ambition, motivation, and determined goals you want to achieve, this score is totally useless. You might end up living an average life without much success.
Being in the chosen category of only 2% of human population puts you in a privileged position.
You should value that and appreciate this gift. It is your duty to make the most of your abilities and not let them to waste because you are lazy or not ambitious.
You are gifted with a purpose to make some improvements for the world as a whole and it would be very selfish of you to waste your talents and abilities, especially considering the majority of people who weren’t as fortunate.