In order to understand what IQ scores represent and how they are measured, we have to think about what is human intelligence. What does it consist of and could it be measured, anyway?
Many disagree on that, claiming IQ tests are too limiting and to strict about deciding on parameters that present human intelligence. The problem is, there is no straightforward definition of human intelligence.
Many attempts have been made, but there is no consensus over it. Nevertheless, we have to define it some way.
Basic, dictionary definition of the intelligence says it is our mental ability to reason, get information or gather knowledge and apply our knowledge and skills in real life. There are many ways to understand this.
Intelligence could be seen as our mean of survival. There are even theories according to which our excellent intelligence, seen as ‘higher’ from that of other living beings, represents a substitute for our poor physical abilities, also compared to other living creatures.
While we do have instincts, animals have better instincts, but we seem to have better intelligence.
Of course, these are all controversial and complicated ideas. What is ‘better’ and what is ‘lesser’ is also debatable. However, it is certain that our intelligence does, in fact, help us survive.
Our intelligence is some kind of survival mechanism; thanks to our intellectual abilities, we adapt to changes in the world around. We think through them and find ways to fit into.
Animals act on instincts and fit, as well. However, there is something more to our intelligence.
Not only that we use it to learn from experience of changes and adapt ourselves to the outer world, but we also adjust outer circumstances to our needs and more than that, our desires.
Therefore, our intellect is creative, inventive; it is not simply a tool for adjusting to circumstances given. Our mind is powerful.
Understanding Human Intelligence
Our mind and mental abilities should not be taken simply and only as our rational capability; imagination makes for a great part of human mental abilities, although not necessarily associated with logical thinking, which is associated with intelligence. Intelligence is complex and profound.
That is the reason why some doubt reliability of IQ tests that focus only on several parameters. Imaginative capacities are hardly ‘evaluated’ in IQ tests.
Talents, skills, as well. IQ tests mostly deal with the Logical mind. There are different approaches to the very idea of human intelligence, one of which considers it a complex of many intelligences interconnected and connected through the idea of general intelligence.
Therefore, we do have something we could consider a basis, the intellect or general intelligence, but each individual also presents with the whole set of intelligences.
This multiple approach is interesting and it challenges IQ tests reliability, since it takes into account skills that would by many experts be discarded. Talents, such as artistic or physical skills are not considered ‘intelligences’ in conventional terms.
However, here those have full attention. It is a useful approach, because it mean a person could be very ‘intelligent’ in one field, but not in some other.
There are eight types of intelligences with two additionally proposed.
They include verbal or linguistic intelligence, spatial or visual intelligence, logical and mathematical intelligence, musical and rhythmic intelligence, bodily or kinesthetic intelligence, naturalistic intelligence, spiritual intelligence and moral intelligence.
You could be a brilliant writer or a spokesperson, but bad mathematician; a great painter, but not musical et cetera.
Brief History of IQ Testing
IQ testing began in the beginning of the twentieth century, with the first test developed by the French.
This test was created for the purposes of educational system in France, meant to help determine which kids would possibly need more assistance during school years.
The test was focused only on three parameters that of the level of attention, memorizing skills and task-processing abilities. The author of the test soon noticed that age does not lay the determining role.
The category of physiological age was replaced by that of mental age. The test was, of course, far from perfect, in terms of evaluation overall human intelligence, which the author himself has claimed.
Many other factors should be taken into consideration, such as social and cultural background, living conditions and many more, he claimed and we agree.
This test was very soon introduced into the United States and standardized by Stanford University. The test presented with the single number score, as we know it today.
During the First World War, two tests were in use, Army Alpha and Beta Tests.
They were the same, but came in a different shape; one in written for, the other in pictures. They were meant to test as many recruits as possible, both those who could read and understand English and those who did not.
However, the tests were in used out of military practice, as the war was over. They were largely misused; the test was applied to immigrant population and one can only imagine what sorts of discriminations this use allowed for.
The next important place in the history of IQ testing was Wechsler’s tests. Wechsler Intelligence Scale, otherwise known as WIS is a large family of tests of which WAIS is still in use.
More precisely, it is WAIS-IV, the fourth edition of the original test. WAIS test focuses on several parameters. It takes into account perceptual reasoning, working memory, task-processing skills and verbal comprehension.
There are variations of the test, including those for specific groups, for children et cetera. WAIS-IV is the most widely practiced official IQ test.
Classification of IQ scores
The average score is usually set at 100 points of the scale, in most of the tests. A standard deviation of 15 points is set to allow for normal distribution curve.
Average score is the essential point of the scale, while, at the same time not a particularly revealing one.
The charge score is shared amongst about 70% of population. It means only that majority of people have certain ‘level’ of intelligence. What it actually means is disputable.
Anyway, here are score ranges according to WAIS-IV scale and some others. Scores that are below 69 are considered ‘extremely low’. There are scales that goes into more detail and carefully explain what each range represents in terms of real life functioning.
The next range is that from 70 to 79 and it stands for ‘borderline’ intelligence.
Scores from 80 to 89 are ‘below average’. This range is associated with the greatest percent of violent behavior.
This is not set in stone and is rather an observation; it does not, of course, mean that all those within the range would be violent.
The next range is that of ‘average’ intelligence, from 90 to 109. Range from 109 to 119 is 0hightaverage’, range from 120 to 129 is ‘superior’. Ranges higher than these are candidates from high scores specialized tests.
High Average Range
High average range, which is the one to which IQ 113 belongs, is associated with BA degrees, successful studies, good comprehension of written and theoretical material and sources, fit for job positions such as that of a teacher, for example.
High average or above the average scores are not genius scores, but they mean one is ‘smarter’ than about a half of population.
There have always been controversies and divided opinions on what such a score means in reality. While some high scorers discard this one as not particularly impressive, others firmly believe it is a perspective range.
The diversity amongst the answers only confirms the notion of unreliability of IQ scoring, in terms of evaluation of human intelligence. Well, a high average range still does not tell what one was capable of.
Factors such as persistence, creativity, dedication, emotional stability, even socio-cultural background would definitely play an important role in actual manifestation of a particular score.
High average scores could be seen as scores of great potential. Being smarter than majority of people is a thing that opens up new opportunities; it is so, since you would probably be more capable of reasoning your options etc. However, all factors would play a role.
IQ 113 Score Meaning
IQ score 113 places you amongst those of the ‘high average’ range. As we have mentioned, this score presents with reasoning and logical thinking that is above the average population.
It also means your task processing speed and task processing skills are slightly better than those of ‘average’ individuals are. This score also means that you would probably have no problem in obtaining a BA degree and of studies.
It is, however, wrong to think that the score limits you t this. Through patient work, with focus and dedication you could, of course, achieve more.
The problem is that your score 113 does not tell about your personality, which plays a tremendous role in actual use of the intellectual potential nor it does tell about additional skills you perhaps possess.
Predicting life success according to IQ score is a double bladed knife. It has always been disputable and people get extremely passionate about it.
If you talk to different people of the same score, you would probably notice certain similarities in their perceptual reasoning of the world, nut their attitudes and even ways of experiencing the world might be very different.
The best side of 113 score is that it does open new doors of perception, but everything else is up to you.
In addition, this is a score that sets you ‘higher’, although not as much as to extremely stand out.
It could be taken as a positive thing, since it means one with such a score gets along with majority of people, be those of average score or those of high scores.
High average is, in fact, ‘in between’ different perceptions of the world and it could be a very useful position.